Minority Representation: America vs Malaysia

Below is an article that I wrote in 2017 as a columnist for the news portal ‘Menara.my’ under the title, “Minority Rights: Malaysia vs America”. Seeing that the action of likening Black oppression in the United States of America to the supposed minority oppression in Malaysia is prevailing after the unfortunate death of a Black citizen due to police brutality in America, I thought that this article might be enlightening to some. Since this article was written before Malaysia’s 14th General Election, the breakdown of the Dewan Rakyat representatives is out of date. However, do keep in mind that the number of minority representatives have increased and not decreased since the previous election.

America, the “Land of the Free,” the country with the best governance and laws which provide equal rights for all human beings, no matter their race or religion. And as the Muslim Bumiputra-led government of Malaysia is always heavily criticised for discriminating the minorities, Malaysia should definitely learn about racial and religious equality from the United States … right? 

In 1788, when the United States Constitution granted each state the power to set their voting requirements, suffrage was mostly restricted to white males. [1] At that time, so many African-Americans were legally bonded to their owners as chattel slaves that the status of slave had been institutionalised as a racial caste associated with African ancestry. [2] The existence of one of the largest and most destructive conflict in the Western world, “The American Civil War” is an obvious proof of the whites’ refusal to accept the fact that the African-Americans are also humans who deserve the rights to live as freemen. The war between the Northern states who pledged under President Lincoln’s words that all men are created equal and the pro-black slavery Confederate States of America lasted for four years and cost about 625,000 lives. [3]  

Even after the Civil War ended and the Northern states came out victorious, a Confederate sympathiser who was also initiated into the pro-Confederate ‘Knights of the Golden Circle’ fatally wounded President Lincoln in an exhibition of protest against the freedom of the blacks. [4] In a clear attempt to return the newly freed slaves into their former condition, most Southern states enacted the “Black Code” which prohibits the blacks to assemble in groups [5], testify against white people in court [6], and even to simply learn to read and write. [7][8] 

Upon the long-delayed ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment which abolishes slavery and the Fifteenth Amendment which granted the rights to vote to all men without any regards to their race, the “Jim Crow Laws” were enacted, enforcing a racial segregation in the Southern United States. Poll taxes, literacy tests and threats of violent acts by the whites in the form of lynch mobs and terrorist attacks effectively excluded most blacks from the political system. [9] 

It took them nearly a hundred years to finally overrule the “Jim Crow Laws” in the forms of the “Civil Rights Act of 1964”[10] and the “Voting Rights Act of 1965”. [11] 

And yet, Malaysian minorities have been voting since the very first Malaysian election in 1955. They were neither bounded as chattel slaves nor ripped off from their rights to vote, assemble in groups, and to learn to read and write. In fact, a number of Chinese and Indians were already elected during the first Malaysian election, a stark difference against America which did not feature an African-American representative until their 41st congress. [12] 

Even today, the minorities in America are still greatly under-represented in America compared to Malaysia which has a more or less balanced amount of representatives. 

Only 7.36% of the representatives are Hispanics and/or Latinos compared to the 16.30% of the American population who are Hispanics and/or Latinos. Whereas in Malaysia, the representation of the races in Malaysia’s Dewan Rakyat is more or less well-balanced. 

Not just that, in America, the Christians, which encompasses 70.60% of the population, makes up a massive figure of 93.10% of the representatives—crowding the representatives of the minorities which makes up 28.80% of the population to only having 5.52% of the seats. However, in the Muslim country of Malaysia, the Christians (a minority religion) are over-represented, making up about 14% to 21% of the Dewan Rakyat compared to their 9.20% figure in the population statistics. The Muslims make an almost exact figure of about 61.29% to 61.30%.  

Just by looking into the history and the current political scenario of the two countries, it is already obvious that the government of the “Land of the Free” and its majority, the whites, are far more racially and religiously biased than the Malaysian government and its majority, the Bumiputras. In truth, one should always properly study a country with a fair mind before making any judgements and comments which will ignite racial and religious conflicts, perturbing the peace and harmony of the country. 


1. http://15thamendment.harpweek.com/HubPages/CommentaryPage.asp?Commentary=01Timeline1865 

2. https://slate.com/human-interest/2015/05/peter-h-wood-strange-new-land-excerpt.html 

3. http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/civil-war-overview/overview.html 

4. https://archive.org/details/shadowofsentinel00getl 

5. Zebina Eastman, Black Code of Illinois, 1883, p 36 

6. Zebina Eastman, Black Code of Illinois, 1883, p 44 

7. Acts passed by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina [1830-1831], chapter VI 

8. https://blogs.ancestry.com/ancestry/2017/10/05/professional-genealogist-offers-advice-on-tracing-african-american-roots/ 

9. https://web.archive.org/web/20070304111738/http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/voting/intro/intro_b.htm 

10. https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act 

11. https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act 

12. https://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/BAIC/Black-Americans-in-Congress/ 

Disrespect Towards the Sovereign Rulers, and Racial Divide: Someone Needs to Close the Can of Worms

Since May last year, there has been a profound rise in the number of random civilians who posts words or pictures which are preaching hatred on their social media pages by mocking the sovereign rulers of the country and the people who support them, and insulting the practices and ideologies which are taught in Islam, the religion of the Federation. These posts are obviously stirring up the anger of all patriotic citizens, not only the Malays and the Muslims, and are causing a divide between the people.

As a multiracial country, people of all races and religions would feel angry about such acts because they feel compassionate for their fellow compatriots. These people would also feel angry at the disrespect shown to their sovereign rulers who they owe to for the peace and success of their country. However, it is sad to see that the number of people from other races who are standing behind the sovereign rulers and the Malays is minute. The rest of them have either chosen to join the charade of hate preaching or to ignore the whole fiasco altogether. And this is where the divide happens.

When the Malays embraced and welcomed the induction of the Chinese and the Indians as citizens of Malaysia, only to have a majority of these people mock and insult their religion, they feel very much betrayed. This feeling subsequently leads to indignation which leads to them standing up to protect the sanctity of their religion and race. When the Malays unite to stand up for the king, their religion and race, there are people who dislike this unity and instill fear into the hearts of the people from other races—specifically the Chinese and the Indians, by accusing the Malays of attempting to oust them from the country. This provokes the other races to mock and insult the sovereign rulers and the Malays even further. Thus, when the fight is no longer between individuals and the patriotic citizens but race against race, it poses as a grave danger to the peace of our country.

There needs to be a stop in the derogatory usage of our sovereign rulers, and the teachings, traditions and practices of the Muslims as items of mockery and ingredients for jokes.

The Malays were generous enough to relax the citizenship law and grant citizenship for the Chinese and the Indians, who came from their subsequent countries to find a better life. For about 54 years since the establishment of the Social Contract of Malaysia—the basis on which the citizenship of the Chinese and the Indians stands, the people enjoyed a peaceful and joyous life in a country which celebrates its unique multiracial identity, safe for the communal altercation which took place in 1969. All this is now placed at stake because of some foolish and shallow acts done without thorough thought. The impending doom of a communal riot similar to the 13th May 1969 incident seems ever so close at hand. 

This is exactly the reason as to why law is established in a country.

Peace is brought forth when there is order, and for there to be order, a law needs to be established, upheld and practised. The citizens of a civilised country should feel responsible to protect, uphold and respect the law. The government should be the one who sees that the law is being practised and exercised justly—for what is the use of the law if it is not being practised? The amendment of the Sedition Act 1948 in 1971 which criminalises speech with “seditious tendency”, including that which would engender “feelings of ill-will and hostility between different races” was done exactly to curb the communal altercation which we are going through today after experiencing the deadly 13th May 1969 incident. 

The failure of the people to understand the severity of their actions and the reason behind the laws which have been established in the country is saddening and horrifying, and the failure to see through that the law is being practised and upheld is encouraging such acts which are preaching hatred and causing a divide in our country. Thus, until the law is practised and upheld again, the number of such disrespectful, immature and thoughtless acts will only escalate.

Apabila Melayu Sudah Lupa Diri

Beberapa hari lepas, saya terima mesej ini di WhatsApp:


Saya setuju, memang benar bahawa ramai orang Melayu yang alpa—lupa diri kerana terlalu leka berfoya-foya di dunia yang fana ini. Masalah sosial di Negara kita kian meningkat. Artis-artis K-Pop menjadi idola anak Melayu zaman sekarang.

Tetapi, ada dua perkara yang saya sangat tidak setuju di dalam tulisan di atas. Salah satunya ialah ayat ini:


Apakah ertinya, “Melayu yang Islam” dan “Melayu yang Melayu”? Frasa “Orang Melayu” sudah ditafsirkan secara terperinci di dalam Perlembagaan Malaysia dibawah Perkara 160.


Jelasnya, ciri-ciri utama seorang Melayu adalah beragama Islam. Sekaligus, ini bermaksud bahawa orang Melayu itu mesti beragama Islam; dan jika seseorang Melayu menjadi “Melayu yang Melayu”, tentunya dia juga akan menjadi “Melayu yang Islam”.

Kalau begitu, mengapakah “Melayu yang Melayu” “sukar, lambat dan tak nampak jalan”? Siapakah sebenarnya yang ingin dirujuk oleh Dr Syukri Abdullah sebagai “Melayu yang Melayu”?

Hanya Melayu yang sudah lupa asal-usul dirinya yang sesat jalan.

Kerana itulah, orang Melayu di Malaysia yang sepatutnya Islam mesti bersatu, bergabung kuasa, berganding bahu dalam menangani masalah sosial di negara ini. Bukannya berpecah-belah kerana perbezaan politik.

Sekarang ini, apabila seorang ahli politik mengemukakan satu solusi untuk menangani masalah sosial di negara kita dengan mencadangankan satu pindaan yang akan memperkukuhkan undang-undang Syariah, ramai pula yang membantah. Yang lebih menyedihkan lagi adalah apabila ramai orang Melayu sendiri yang membantah pindaan ini.


Memang, mungkin masalah yang kita hadapi ini berpunca daripada silap laku pemimpin kita yang terdahulu. Tetapi, apabila pemimpin kita yang ada sekarang sedang mencuba untuk memperbaiki kesilapan lama dengan menjadi lebih Melayu dan lebih Islam, ramai pula yang memperlekehkan mereka dengan mengatakan bahawa mereka ini poyo, mundur dan membawa satu gelombong “arabisation” ke Malaysia yang perlu digeruni.

Apabila pemimpin-pemimpin PAS mengenakan pakaian tradisional Melayu, mereka dikutuk dan diejek.


Apabila pemimpin-pemimpin UMNO mula menggunakan frasa-frasa Islam semasa perhimpunan agungnya mereka diperlekeh dan dihina.


Soalnya mengapa Melayu perlu dipecah-pecahkan? Kenapa mesti ada golongan “Melayu yang Melayu” dan “Melayu yang Islam”? Tidak cukupkah perpecahan Melayu maka mesti dicari jalan untuk lebih memecahkan Melayu?

Inilah masalah sesetengah orang Melayu zaman sekarang. Apabila pemimpin kita tidak Islamik, mereka mahukan pemimpin yang Islamik. Apabila pemimpin kita sudah Islamik, mereka mempersendakan pemimpin itu dan memuja tokoh-tokoh yang membawa ajaran liberalisme dan pluralisme.


Sedarkah kita mengapa masalah ini berlaku? Ini adalah akibat apabila kita terperangkap dalam dan tertipu dengan perancangan teliti yang dibuat oleh orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani yang tidak senang melihat orang Islam megah berkuasa di Tanah Air kita ini. Mereka tidak akan senang melihat orang Melayu bersatu kerana jika kita bersatu, mereka tidak dapat mengalahkan kita.


Tetapi, apabila bukti perancangan ini diketengahkan, ramai orang Melayu sendiri yang berkata bahawa semua ini adalah konspirasi UMNO untuk menakut-nakutkan rakyat Malaysia supaya rakyat akan mengundi UMNO dan sekaligus, Najib-Rosmah akan terus berkuasa dan bermaharajalela; merompak duit rakyat untuk membeli Birkin dan cincin.

Sudahkah kita lupa tentang pesanan Allah s.w.t. seperti yang tercatat di dalam Al-Qur’an?


Inilah hakikatnya sikap sesetengah orang Melayu zaman sekarang. Sudah lupa, sudah alpa. Terlalu mudah diperdaya dengan bisikan syaitan dan tipu-helah mereka yang benci Melayu dan Islam.

Bilalah kita akan sedar bahawa jika kita mahu melihat Islam terus didaulatkan di Tanah Air kita, kita mestilah bersatu bersama mereka yang memperjuangkan agenda Islam dan Melayu dan bukannya mereka yang hanya mengaku Islam tetapi berkawan akrab dengan musuh-musuh Islam dan bermusuh dengan orang yang dianggap sebagai “Melayu yang Melayu”?


Ayuh Melayu… “sama-sama fikir, sama-sama renung. Sama-sama bertindak dengan bijaksana.”

“Bukan emosi tak tentu hala!”

“Melayu yang Melayu” dan “Melayu yang Islam” tiada bezanya. Semua mereka orang Melayu dan semua mereka orang Islam.

Melayu yang sudah lupa yang “sukar, lambat dan tak nampak jalan”.

P/S: Satu lagi, bila pula Melayu diskriminasi Cina dan India?

Police Report Against Lim Guan Eng

It is a shame that the maximum years of imprisonment allowed in the Act 355 is not more than 3 years when the maximum years of imprisonment for having a sexual intercourse with animal is 20 years as listed in Section 377 Penal Code. Does Lim Guan Eng really believes that the value of an animal is much greater than the value of man?

On the 23rd day of November, 2016, DAP’s Secretary-General Lim Guan Eng posted an article on his blog titled, “MCA, MIC, Gerakan And SUPP Should Withdraw From BN Following BN’s Endorsement Of Hudud-Like Laws”. In the said article, he shows strong opposition against the proposal to amend Act 355 to raise the maximum punishment to 30 years of imprisonment, RM100,000 fine and 100 times of whipping.

This amendment must be implemented to empower the Syariah court so that we can control the critical social problems in Malaysia and to further ensure the public’s security. By opposing the proposal and labeling it as unconstitutional, Lim Guan Eng is also telling the people to betray the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Agong had mentioned in his speech during the opening of the 13th Parliament on the 7th March, 2016 that he hopes that efforts will be taken to strengthen the Islamic institution and improvise the Syariah law by empowering the Syariah court.

“Beta harap usaha akan dilaksanakan untuk mengukuhkan institusi agama dan untuk menambahbaik pentadbiran undang-undang Islam dengan memperkasa mahkamah syariah” -Yang di-Pertuan Agong 7th March, 2016

DAP’s Lim Guan Eng claims that the amendment is unconstitutional as our Federal Constitution is secular in nature with Islam as the religion of the Federation—which is very self-contradicting. How can a Federal Constitution be secular and Islamic at the same time when being secular is the act of separating religion and the government institution? Islam is the religion of the Federation as written in our Federal Constitution under Article 3(1) which has been clarified on various occasions, most notably by Justice Mohd Noor Abdullah in his ruling of the case, Meor Atiqul Rahman and others vs Fatimah Sihi and others. There is nothing secular about our Federal Constitution. It is impossible for it to be so.

He also accuses MCA, MIC, Gerakan and SUPP of betraying their principles and promises to uphold and defend the Federal Constitution because of their alliance with UMNO under the Barisan Nasional flag (for which he claims that they deserve public condemnation). The tittle itself urges MCA, MIC, Gerakan and SUPP to leave Barisan Nasional, a multi-racial political alliance, claiming at the end of the article that their failure in doing so is a sign of tacit approval of the unconstitutional measures adopted by UMNO and implying that UMNO had been “leaving them in the dark” and completely ignoring them.

Not only is this accusation baseless since the amendment of Akta 355 is in no way against the Federal Constitution, but his urges and false claims are inciting tension and conflict between UMNO and MCA, MIC, Gerakan and SUPP, or in other words, inciting tension and conflict between the Malays and the other races.

The statements posted on his blog, has a high potential to breach the peace and harmony of the nation by instigating a fight between the different races and religion, and inciting hate into the hearts of the people against the government and more importantly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. His statements have also gone against several parts of the Sedition Act 1948:

  1. Seksyen 3 (1) (a): “bagi mendatangkan kebencian atau penghinaan atau bagi membangkitkan perasaan tidak setia terhadap mana-mana Raja atau Kerajaan”
  2. Seksyen 3 (1) (c): “bagi mendatangkan kebencian atau penghinaan atau bagi membangkitkan perasaan tidak setia terhadap pentadbiran keadilan di Malaysia”
  3. Seksyen 3 (1) (d): “bagi mengembangkan perasaan niat jahat dan permusuhan antara kaum atau golongan penduduk yang berlainan di Malaysia”
  4. Seksyen 3 (1) (f): “bagi mempersoalkan apa-apa perkara, hak, taraf, kedudukan, keistimewaan, kedaulatan atau prerogatif yang ditetapkan atau dilindungi oleh peruntukan Bahagian III Perlembagaan Persekutuan atau Perkara 152, 153 atau 181 Perlembagaan Persekutuan”

Concerned for the peace and harmony of my country, I have lodged a police report on the said article at the Ampang Jaya Police Station last Thursday.


Lim Kit Siang: Leader of Deklarasi Anti-Najib?

Nga Kor Ming, Malaysian politician and Member of Parliament for the Taiping seat under the DAP flag, posted a picture on his Facebook page in which they photoshopped Lim Kit Siang, Tun Mahathir and Muhyiddin as Captain America, Hulk and Hawkeye (superheroes from the Marvel Comics).
Nga Kor Ming- Marvel

Captain America has always been known as the leader of the Avengers. He is incorruptible and as near to a perfectly good human being as anyone can get. He will not compromise his principles for anything, not even his life. And he is one of the few deemed worthy to lift the Mjolnir– Thor(the Norse god of lightning)’s hammer. Even Batman has once admitted that Captian America can defeat him in a fight.

What a great hero he is!

Captain America against supervillain, Thanos.
Captain America against the supervillain, Thanos.

Hulk possesses an immense superhuman strength, stamina, durability, endurance, and longevity. But, as everyone knows, he also has a big anger management issue. Once he turns into the big, green guy, there is a big chance that he won’t be able to control his rage and might destroy a whole town if no one stops him. In fact, he has been frequently used by many villains to cause chaos inside the team itself by instigating his anger.

He is constantly a very dangerous ticking time bomb.

Then we have the reluctant-villain-turned-hero, Hawkeye, who, despite being a well-loved sidekick, he really is just a novice in the Avengers team and even though he has led the Secret Avengers team, he usually carries more of a soldier role than being a leader himself.


Why does Nga Kor Ming pose Lim Kit Siang as the Captain America, Tun Mahathir as Hulk and Muhyiddin as Hawkeye?

Is it a way of saying that Lim Kit Siang is the actual leader of the team while Tun Mahathir is a man with bad anger management issues and has a tendency of randomly stomping his way around like a mad monster and Muhyiddin is no more than just a mere soldier for Lim Kit Siang?

Iron Man He's the boss

Lim Kit Siang Boss

Mahathir… A Gone Hero

Mahathir was once a figure who I looked up to. His actions were the ones which I respected. “Perjuangan Belum Selesai” touched my soul. “Melayu Mudah Lupa” was my battle cry.

But now, watching his actions and listening to what he says today, I am no longer sure if those words which made him the “Hero of the Malays”, really came from his heart or if they were all just a part of his sickly, twisted game.

“Sesungguhnya tidak ada yang lebih menyayat hati
Dari melihat bangsaku dijajah
Tidak ada yang lebih menyedihkan
dari membiarkan bangsaku dihina
Air mata tiada ertinya
Sejarah silam tiada maknanya
Sekiranya bangsa tercinta terpinggir
Dipersenda dan dilupakan”– Tun Dr. Mahathir in Perjuangan Belum Selesai

Did he mean it when he wrote that it pierced his heart when the Malays were forced to bow down to the ‘penjajah’? That nothing was more heart-wrenching then seeing his own race being insulted?

That tears are worthless and history is meaningless if our own race, our own religion are being forgotten– being stepped on– being shunned?

Because if he did, how can he ever bear to be together with those people who, clearly from the emblems and the banners they hold up high, are discriminating and humiliating his own race and religion?

Penyapu Melayu Mei 13

Penyapu Melayu Bersih 4

How can he support the illegal demonstration which is being led by the people he himself has labeled as ‘pengkhianat bangsa’?

Mat Sabu Lim Kit Siang Wan Azizah

Tun Mahathir himself has once said that the Malays who join the opposition’s illegal assemblies are greedy and selfish people– does this means that he is one too?

Were all of his past actions merely acts for his own political gain? Did any of his own words ever came from his heart? Are all the tears he shed for the country actually crocodile tears?

Looking at his actions now, I think we were fooled by his twisted, malicious game.

It is still very hard for me to accept the harsh reality. The man who is now spreading lies and false words about the government and supporting the enemies and the greedy monkeys is the same man that I used to respect.

The book was purposely added into the picture to feature the hero of the Malays.
I photographed his book by the Jalur Gemilang because I thought that Tun M. is the “Hero of The Malays”.

I still want to believe that he is just being tricked, being fooled to support Bersih 4; but again, he is not a child who can be fooled easily.

How can he forget the people who had once threatened to ‘sweep out’ the Malays from our own land with giant brooms while chanting the words, “Melayu Sakai!” and “Melayu Balik Hutan!”?

Melayu Sakai- DAP Lim Kit Siang Halau Melayu Lim Kit Siang Bersih 4 Mahathir Bersih 4

He is no more a hero to me.

He is a hypocrite who acted against his own words.

He always said, “Melayu Mudah Lupa… “; now it looks like Mahathir Sudah Lupa…

Or does he thinks that since, “Melayu Mudah Lupa… “, he is free to do anything because soon, we’ll forget his bad deeds?

Mahathir Mudah Lupa


Congratulations to our prime minister, Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak for pledging to preserve the Sedition Act 1948!

In his speech during UMNO’S General Assembly 2014 this morning, Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak who is also the president of UMNO have pledged to not just preserve the act, but also protect and amend it so that Islam will be further protected from any disgrace and that strong actions will be taken on those who calls for the cessation of Sabah and Sarawak.

Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak said that he decided this after considering the feedbacks he received from Umno’s deputy president Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, Wanita Umno, Pemuda Umno, Puteri Umno, the grassroots and non-governmental organisations

Congratulations and thank you Dato’ Sri Najib for protecting our religion, race and country from further threats; for pledging to keep the peace, harmony and the stability of our beloved Malaysia 🙂

Power-Crazy Politicians Trying to Overrule The Sultan

In an article written by lawyer Mohamed Hanipa Maidin, published by The Malaysian Insider, he wrote that the Sultan of Selangor has no choice but to approve PKR’s leader, Dr Wan Azizah as the MB of Selangor just because she has a 2/3 of the DUN in Selangor.

Bolehkah DUN Selangor dibubar? – Mohamed Hanipa
Read full article here: Bolehkah DUN Selangor dibubar? – Mohamed Hanipa

Doesn’t Hanipah Maidin understand the Selangor Constitution? In Article 55(2) of the Selangor Constitution, it is written that:

Selangor Constitution Article 55(2)

That means, the Sultan of Selangor has the freedom to choose whether he will or will not approve Dr Wan Azizah as the MB of Selangor. As of right now, despite losing the majority support from the DUN of Selangor, Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Khalid Ibrahim  is still legally the MB of Selangor because the Sultan of Selangor instructed him to remain as the MB, until His Highness returns to Malaysia.

Therefore, Dr Wan Azizah has no rights to elect herself as the Selangor MB even if Anwar Ibrahim, PKR, DAP and PAS voted for her to become the new MB because the rights to choose the MB belongs to the Sultan of Selangor.

In another article published by the The Malaysian Insider, TMI forced the MB of Selangor, Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Khalid Ibrahim to quit his position as the MB and to ignore the Sultan of Selangor’s orders:

Khalid should quit now, no need for royal audience
Read full article here: Khalid should quit now, no need for royal audience

Who do they think they are to force Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Khalid Ibrahim to listen to their orders and ignore, disobey and disrespect the Sultan? Do they believe that they are more powerful than the Sultan? During all the years when BN ruled Selangor, Selangor had never been in a such mess because BN had never tried to overrule the Sultan’s words as what is happening now.

This is what happens when the parties in power are too power crazy. They have nothing else in their minds but to overrule each other and to satisfy their greed for money and power.

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